Left Wing Extremism (LWE)

Gs3_Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.

Why in news

Five security personnel were killed and more than 12 injured in an encounter with Maoists in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh.

  1. Left-Wing Extremism
    • LWE organizations are the groups that try to bring change through violent revolution. They are against democratic institutions and use violence to subvert the democratic processes at ground level.
    • These groups hinder  the developmental processes in the least developed regions of the country
    • They try to misguide  people by keeping them ignorant of current devolopments.
  2.  Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) is one of the major internal security challenges faced by the nation.
    • However, events of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) violence came down from 2258 in 2009 to 833 in 2018.
    • It was because of the never-ending successful efforts of our security forces that the number of related incidents, deaths & their geographical spread came down in the past decade.
  3. Red Corridor
    • The Red Corridor is the region in the central, eastern and southern parts of India that experience severe Naxalite–Maoist insurgency.
    • The districts affected by LWE and part of the Corridor are among the poorest in India.
    • Most of the region has a high tribal population. The region is also marked by severe caste and economic disparities.
    • Roughly, the Corridor stretches from the Indian border with Nepal and extends to the northern fringes of Tamil Nadu.
    • The region also has a significantly lower literacy rate compared to the national average.
  4. Government Strategy to Curb LWE-
    • The Government’s approach is to deal with Left Wing Extremism in a holistic manner, in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, improvement in governance and public perception management.
      • SAMADHAN doctrine is the one-stop  go to solution for the LWE problem. It encompasses the entire policies of government including both short-term and long-term policies formulated at different levels. SAMADHAN stands for-
        • S- Smart Leadership,
        • A- Aggressive Strategy,
        • M- Motivation and Training,
        • A- Actionable Intelligence,
        • D- Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas),
        • H- Harnessing Technology,
        • A- Action plan for each Theatre,
        • N- No access to Financing.
      • The national strategy to counter LWE 2015 offers a comprehensive and collaborative approach to combat LWE. Its main aim was to ensure participatory governance and protection of the rights of local tribals, inter alia.
      • Intelligence sharing and rising of dedicated task force- 66 Indian Reserved Battalions (IRBs) was done by the government to curb the menace of LWE organizations.
  5. Development of LWE Affected Areas
    • Few schemes being implemented by the government for LWE affected areas are:
      • Special Central Assistance (SCA)- for filling critical gaps in public infrastructure and services of emergent nature.
      • Road Connectivity Project- for construction of 5,412 km roads.
      • Skill Development– for construction of 47 ITIs (01 ITI per district) and 68 Skill Development Centers (02 SDCs per district) by 2018-19.
      • Education Initiatives– for building new Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVs) & Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNVs) where they are not present. It is also planned to open more schools under the Eklavya model.
      • Installation of Mobile Towers– for endless telecom connectivity.
      • Financial inclusion– for ensuring the presence of banking facilities within 5 km to all citizens residing in LWE affected areas.

Way Forward

  • continued efforts and focus are needed in eliminating LWE, first line of actions should be backed by the second line of actions
  • Innovative measures are required to be employed in preventing IED (Improvised Explosive Device) related incidents which have caused significant casualties in recent years.
  • emphasis should be laid on the capacity-building and modernization of the local police forces. Local forces can efficiently and effectively neutralize the LWE organizations.
  • States should rationalize their surrender policy in order to bring innocent individuals caught in the trap of LWE in the mainstream.

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