Question :COVID-19 pandemic and zoonotic disease in recent years has brought into highlight the need for One Health Approach. Explain what is one health approach and its significance?
One Health is a collaborative, multi-sectorial, and trans-disciplinary approach – working at local, regional, national, and global levels – to achieve optimal health and well-being outcomes recognizing the interconnections between people, animals, plants and their shared environment. It is an approach to design and implement programs, policies, legislation and research in which multiple sectors communicate and work together to achieve better public health outcomes.
- Many of the same microbes infect animals and humans, as they share eco-systems they live in. Efforts by just one sector cannot prevent or eliminate the problem. For ex. Rabies in humans is effectively prevented only by targeting the animal source of virus (for ex. By vaccinating dogs).
- Information on influenza viruses circulating in animals in crucial to the selection of viruses for human vaccines for potential influenza pandemics.
- Drug resistant microbes can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact between animals and humans or through contaminated food, so to effectively contain it, a well-coordinated approach in humans and in animals is required.
- Planetary Environmental health may affect human and animal health through contamination, pollution and changing climate conditions that may lead to emergence of new infectious agents.
Recently world was shaken by zoonotic diseases like Nippa and Covid and one health approach is coming to the centre of discussion again. India need to act in such a way that richness of this country in various fields also be integrated to bring out the best for public.