GS 2- INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
Introduction The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations, achieve international cooperation and a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations
The United Nations commemorated its 75th anniversary on September 21, 2020 by adopting a Declaration.
- witnessing a retreat from multilateralism.
- also faces an unprecedented pandemic.
- Secretary-General called the pandemic “the fifth horseman”.
- also brought the deepest recession,the world has seen since the 1930s.
- made it more difficult to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Challenge to multilateralism:
- The U.S. is not alone in withdrawing from multilateralism.
- Brexit has shown that nationalism remains strong in Europe.
- China has stepped in to take advantage of West’s retreat from multilateralism.
- The European Union and U.S sanctions against Russia have driven it closer to China.
- The rift between the permanent members of the Security Council has already started affecting the work of the UN Security Council.
SPEECH:US , FRANCE,TURKEY & CHINA:
The speeches at the UN General Assembly brought out the clashing perspectives of the U.S. and China.
- Trump:-“America First” in his speech, and suggested that others too should put their countries first.
- highlighted China’s culpability in the spread of the pandemic.
- China had banned internal flights but allowed international flights from Wuhan to continue leads to spread of COVID-19.
- World Health Organization also failed to provide early warnings.
- President Xi’s speech:- A role on the world stage is not an embrace of the idea of multilateralism.
- sought to project the fight against COVID-19
- matter of collective responsibility of the international community.
- China will honour its commitment to provide $2 billion assistance to the developing countries over two years.
- French President Macron :-the U.S, which created the international system as we know today, is no longer willing to be its “guarantor of last resort”.
- pointed out that while the U.S. is withdrawing, the world faces China’s projection beyond its frontiers.
- highlighted problems posed by Turkey’s intervention in Syria, Libya, and the Eastern Mediterranean.(Breach of International law)
- Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan made a detailed reference to the Jammu and Kashmir issue.
- Prime Minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan, in his speech made an extensive reference to Jammu and Kashmir.
- country has slid to the 134th rank in the UN SDG index, the lowest for any country in South Asia.
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi Speech:focused on UN reforms and India’s contribution to UN Peacekeeping.
- need to support reform to expand the permanent members’ category of the Security Council.
- also to revitalise the role of the General Assembly.
World Leaders on Climate change:
- Trump mentioned that
- China’s emissions are nearly twice of those of the U.S.
- its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement.
- U.S. has reduced its carbon emissions by more than any country in the world.
- President Xi said that after peaking emissions by 2030, China will achieve carbon neutrality before 2060.
- President Macron EU agree on a target of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050.
Achievements by the UN:UN Secretary-General’s report
- Over 40 UN political missions and peacekeeping operations engage 95,000 troops, police, and civil personnel.
- The UN peacekeeping budget, a little over $8 billion, is a small fraction of the $1.9 trillion military expenditure governments made in 2019.
- outstanding assessed contribution of $1.7 billion for peacekeeping activities by the end of the financial year.
- outstanding $711 million in the assessed contribution for the general budget.
- Most of the humanitarian assistance, developmental work, and budgets of the specialised agencies are based on voluntary contributions.
- The UN provides ‘public goods’ in terms of peace and development often in remote parts of the world.
- It suffers from a paucity of resources.
- There are calls for increasing public-private partnerships.
- Not a satisfactory arrangement.
- There may not be enough appetite on the part of corporations- remains an inter-governmental body.
- Narendra Modi called for reform of its
- outdated structures.
- absence of comprehensive changes.
- the world body today faces a crisis of confidence.
- principal organ
- the Security Council
- rules-based international order
- contributing to peacekeeping through UN forces.
Declaration passed by all member countries this week pledges to “upgrade the United Nations” with a commitment to “instil new life in the discussions on the reform of the Security Council”.